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Glossary A
A5-relative reference
An address designated by a 16-bit offset from the A5 register in the 680x0-based Apple Macintosh. An A5-relative reference is similar to the "near data" address in Intel-based machines.
ABC width
Or ABC character spacing. The amount of spacing required for a single glyph in a font. "A" spacing is added to the current position before drawing the glyph. "B" spacing is the width of the black part of the glyph. "C" spacing is added to the current position to account for the white space to the right of the glyph. The total advanced width is given by A+B+C. See also overhang, underhang.
abnormal termination
In exception handling, the condition that occurs when a program leaves the try block of a try-finally statement before the code executes to the closing brace. For example, statements such as return, goto, continue, and break can cause abnormal termination.
absolute position
The ordinal position of a record in a recordset. In ODBC, absolute position is one-based; in DAO, it is zero-based.
absolute symbol
A symbol that contains a constant value for an address in memory not associated with a program address.
absolute time
An expression of time that stays the same regardless of the time zone.
abstract class
Or abstract base class. In C++, a class that cannot be instantiated but is used as a base from which other classes can be derived. An abstract class contains at least one pure virtual function; if its derived classes do not implement these pure virtual functions, then they, too, become abstract classes.
abstract declarator
A declarator that does not declare a name — the identifier is left out. For example,
char *
declares the type "pointer to type char."
abstract declarator
A declarator that does not declare a name[.--]the identifier is left out. For example, in C++, [lb]char *[\lb] declares the type "pointer to type char."
accelerator key
Or keyboard accelerator, shortcut key, keyboard shortcut. A keystroke or combination of keystrokes that invokes a particular command. See also accelerator table, access key.
accelerator table
Or accelerator resource. A data structure that contains a list of accelerator keys and the command identifiers associated with them.
access control
The keywords public, private, mutable, and protected that restrict member usage of variables, member functions, and local types. Access is granted by a class. Access control is assigned to class members and does not depend on type.
access key
Or mnemonic key. The key that corresponds to an underlined letter on a menu or dialog-box item. An access key can be used to invoke the command associated with that menu item or dialog-box item. See also accelerator key.
access mode
A mode that determines the manner in which entry to a file, directory, or other data source object is permitted, as well as the manner in which changes are made to the data. See also direct mode, transacted mode.
access privileges
In object-oriented programming, the degree to which a class grants outside access to its data and functions. See also friend.
access token
A group of security attributes permanently attached to a process when a user logs on to the operating system. An access token contains privileges and security identifiers for a user, global group, or local group. The privileges regulate the use of some system services and the security identifiers regulate access to objects that are protected by access-control lists (ACLs). There are two kinds of access tokens: primary and impersonation. See also impersonation token, primary token, privilege, security identifier (SID).
access-control list
A list of security protections that applies to an object (a file, process, event, or anything else having a security descriptor). An entry in an ACL is an access-control entry (ACE). There are two types of access-control lists: discretionary and system. See also security descriptor.
ACF
A special file having two parts: an interface header similar to the interface header in an IDL file, and a body that contains configuration attributes for types and functions defined in the interface body of the IDL file.
ACL
A list of security protections that applies to an object (a file, process, event, or anything else having a security descriptor). An entry in an ACL is an access-control entry (ACE). There are two types of access-control lists: discretionary and system. See also security descriptor.
activation
The process of making a window or other object operational. Activation of a window, for example, changes the color of the title bar, moves the window to the top of the Z order, and enables keyboard focus. In OLE, the term "activation" is often used to refer to in-place activation of embedded objects.
active content
Generic term for active documents, active scripts, and active objects.
active document
Generic term for documents that include active content. Examples of active documents are an HTML page, a Java applet, an OLE document-object, and a document that contains ActiveX controls.
active HTML document
A Web page that contains ActiveX controls, active scripts, or Java applets.
active HTML documents
Web pages containing ActiveX controls, script, or Java applets.
active script
Executable scripts embedded in HTML, such as JScript or VBScript.
active state
1. In OLE, the state of an OLE object in a compound document when the user can edit the embedded object without leaving the container document's window.
2. In general, the state of a program, document, device, or portion of the screen that is currently operational.
Active Template Library
A set of compact, template-based C++ classes that simplify the programming of Component Object Model objects. ATL provides the mechanism to use and create COM objects.
ActiveX
All component technologies built on Microsoft's Component Object Model (COM), other than Object Linking and Embedding.
ActiveX control
The new name for programmable elements formerly known variously as OLE Controls, OCXs, or OLE Custom Controls. Controls previously built with the MFC Control Developer's Kit meet the ActiveX control specification.
ActiveX scripting
Microsoft technology for connecting third-party script engines to applications.
ActiveX server extension
A dynamic-link library (DLL) that creates server extensions on any ISAPI-compliant Web server.
ActiveX server filter
A dynamic-link library (DLL) that intercepts and processes notifications directed to any ISAPI-compliant Web server.
ActiveX server framework
Microsoft tools for creating extensions to ISAPI-compliant Web server software. See also ActiveX server extension, ActiveX server filter, ActiveX scripting.
ActiveX Server framework
Server-side technology extensions, including ISAPI, ActiveX server controls, Active server applications, ActiveX server filters, and ActiveX server scripts.
actual argument
1. Or actual parameter. A unit of information (variable, constant, pointer, etc.) passed in a macro call or inside the parentheses of a function call that the called function then converts to its formal parameter.
2. In the Visual C++ documentation, the argument passed to a C++ template class.
actual parameter list
The arguments specified in a particular method or function call. See also formal parameter list.
address
The path to a value, object, document, page, or other destination. An address can be a memory location, a URL (address to an Internet site) or a UNC network path (address to a file on a local area network). An address may also contain more specific information such as a database object, a bookmark in a file, or a spreadsheet cell range to which the main address points.
address space
1. Or memory space. The portion of memory allocated to a given process. See also heap.
2. Or memory space. More generally, the range of memory locations to which a microprocessor can refer. Effectively, a computer's address space is the amount of memory a microprocessor could use if all the memory was available.
address-of (&) operator
In C/C++, a unary operator that gives the address of its operand, which can be either a function name or an l-value. The result of the address-of operation is a pointer to the operand. The type addressed by the pointer is the type of the operand. Note that the ampersand (&) character is also used by the bitwise-AND (&) operator. See also bitwise operator, indirection (*) operator.
ADSP
A network protocol for interprocess communication between Apple Macintosh computers and other platforms.
advise sink
An interface of a COM object that can receive notifications of changes in an embedded object or linked object. Containers that need to be notified of changes in objects implement an advise sink. Notifications originate in the server, which uses an advisory holder object to cache and manage notifications to containers. See also container application, object handler.
AFXDLL
Redistributable dynamic-link libraries (DLLs) containing the entire 32-bit Microsoft Foundation Class Library. AFXDLL enables you to build an application without statically linking to the MFC object-code libraries. The architecture is useful in building MFC extension DLLs and in sharing the class library between multiple executable files, thus saving disk space and memory.
aggregate object
In the Component Object Model, an object whose implementation of certain interfaces is provided by one or more of its contained objects.
aggregate type
Or complex type, nonscalar type. In C/C++, a structure, union, or array data type. In C++, a class can also be an aggregate type, provided it does not have constructors, nonpublic members, base classes, or virtual functions.
aggregation
A composition technique for implementing COM objects. With aggregation, a new object can reuse one or more existing objects. This reuse is achieved by exposing one or more of the interfaces in the original object.
aliasing
1. In programming, to use an alternate name to refer to a memory location that is already referred to by a different name, or to allow two pointers to point to the same memory location. The alternate name is an "alias."
2. In computer graphics, a rendering technique that assigns to pixels the color of the primitive being rendered, regardless of whether that primitive covers all or only a portion of the pixel's area. This results in a jagged, or "stairstep," appearance of certain design elements, such as diagonal lines, curves, and circles.
3. More generally, to substitute one name, or alias, for another name, or for a group of names. For example, a long Macintosh filename could be aliased with an MS-DOS 8.3-format filename.
alpha value
In mixing models, the component used to control color blending. See also red, green, blue, alpha (RGBA).
ambient property
A run-time property that is managed and exposed by the container. Typically, an ambient property represents a characteristic of a form, such as background color, that is communicated to a control so the control can assume the look and feel of its surrounding environment. See also run-time property.
ambiguity
1. In derived classes, a condition that occurs when an expression can refer to more than one data type, object, or function. Use of the scope resolution (::) operator resolves the ambiguity.
2. In syntax, a condition that can occur with a type cast, especially a function-style type cast. For example, it is unclear whether the expression char *aName( String( s ) ) is a function declaration or an object declaration with a function-style cast as the initializer.
3. More generally, two or more meanings for a single expression, which is anathema to a binary system.
ambiguous expression
1. An expression whose value depends on a particular order of evaluation where the language does not define one. For example, the values received by func( i, ++i ) depend on whether its parameters are passed from right to left or from left to right.
2. An expression that cannot be evaluated because the types used in the expression are not unique.
American National Standards Institute
An organization of American industry and business groups dedicated to the development of trade and communication standards. ANSI sets standards for C and other programming langages to eliminate variations that could cause problems in transporting a program from one type of computer system or environment to another.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
The dominant standard for coding information on computers and related equipment. The ASCII coding scheme assigns numeric values to letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and certain other characters, enabling computers and computer programs to exchange information. See also ANSI character set, Unicode.
anchor
The HTML element that connects Web documents. Anchors either jump to another location, or are jumped to by other anchors. They are similar in function to bookmarks.
animation control
A window that displays animation in Audio Video Interleaved format.
anonymous structure
An unnamed structure variable declared within another structure. Members of an anonymous structure are accessed as if they were members in the containing structure.
anonymous union
In C++, a union without a tag or declarators. An anonymous union declares an unnamed object and cannot have member functions or private or protected members.
ANSI
An organization of American industry and business groups dedicated to the development of trade and communication standards. ANSI sets standards for C and other programming langages to eliminate variations that could cause problems in transporting a program from one type of computer system or environment to another.
ANSI C
The American National Standards Institute's 1990 version of the C language, which specifies the formal syntax and semantics of the language, the standard libraries that are included, and the way in which the compiler is to translate the program. ANSI compliance promotes portability of programs across different platforms.
ANSI character set
An 8-bit character set that contains the 7-bit ASCII standard character set as well as currency and mathematical symbols, accented characters, and other characters not normally found on the keyboard. Microsoft Windows version 3.1 and its applications use the ANSI character set internally. See also OEM character set, Unicode.
ANSI string
A string composed of characters from the ANSI character set.
apartment-model threading
A threading model that can be used only on the thread that created it. Compare free threading model, single threading model.
API
A set of routines that an application uses to request and carry out lower-level services performed by a computer’s operating system. For computers running a graphical user interface, an API manages an application's windows, icons, menus, and dialog boxes.
App Studio precompiled file
A binary version of the current resource file that is created by the Microsoft Visual C++ and used for quick loading of resources. Microsoft Visual C++ gives this file an .APS filename extension.
Apple Shared Library Manager
A library of code and resources that can be used simultaneously by more than one Macintosh application. (ASLM is not supported on the Power Macintosh.) See also stand-alone code.
applet
1. An HTML-based program that the browser temporarily downloads to a user's hard drive, where it runs when the Web page is open. Most often, "applet" refers to programs developed with Java.
2. Any small application.
AppleTalk
A simple local area network developed by Apple Computer that can be used by both Apple and non-Apple computers for communicating and sharing resources such as printers and file servers.
AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol
A network protocol for interprocess communication between Apple Macintosh computers and other platforms.
application class
The class, derived from the MFC class CWinApp, that encapsulates the initialization, running, and termination of a Windows-based application. An application must have exactly one object of an application class. See also application object.
Application Configuration File
A special file having two parts: an interface header similar to the interface header in an IDL file, and a body that contains configuration attributes for types and functions defined in the interface body of the IDL file.
application framework
Or framework. A group of C++ classes in the Microsoft Foundation Class Library that provides the essential components of an application for Windows. The application framework defines the skeleton, or framework, of an application and supplies standard user-interface implementations that can be placed onto the skeleton. See also class library.
application object
The single instance of the application class. The application object controls documents, views, frame windows, and templates, and specifies application behavior such as initialization and cleanup for every instance of the application.
application programming interface
A set of routines that an application uses to request and carry out lower-level services performed by a computer’s operating system. For computers running a graphical user interface, an API manages an application's windows, icons, menus, and dialog boxes.
application queue
In Microsoft Windows, a repository for messages awaiting processing by a particular application. As Windows removes messages from its system message queue, it dispatches the messages that contain application input to the relevant application queue. See also message loop, message queue.
Archie
A tool for finding files stored on anonymous FTP sites. You need to know the exact file name or a substring of it. See also Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives (Veronica).
archive
1. An object, derived from the MFC class CArchive, that provides a type-safe buffering mechanism for writing or reading serializable objects to or from a CFile object — a disk file or a memory file (perhaps representing the Clipboard). A given CArchive object either stores (writes, serializes) data or loads (reads, deserializes) data, but never both. See also serialization.
2. In general, a stored backup copy of data or a program, or the act of storing a backup copy of data or a program.
argument
A value or an expression used with an operator or passed to a subprogram (subroutine, procedure, or function). The program then carries out operations using the arguments. Synonymous with parameter.
arithmetic shift
A shift operation whose left operand is a signed quantity. In a right-shift operation, the sign bit is propagated into the bits vacated by the shift. See also logical shift.
array
An aggregate data type in which all the data items (elements) are of the same type. The elements are accessed by specifying the name of the array and a subscript (index), which represents the element's offset from the base address of the array. For example, myArray[3] represents the fourth element in the array. See also subscript ([ ]) operator.
artificial reference counting
A technique used to safeguard an object before calling a function or method that could prematurely destroy it. See also reference counting.
ASCII
The dominant standard for coding information on computers and related equipment. The ASCII coding scheme assigns numeric values to letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and certain other characters, enabling computers and computer programs to exchange information. See also ANSI character set, Unicode.
ASCII character
A character that is part of the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII). The ASCII character set is a standard 7-bit code for representing characters — letters, digits, punctuation, and control instructions — with binary values.
ASLM
A library of code and resources that can be used simultaneously by more than one Macintosh application. (ASLM is not supported on the Power Macintosh.) See also stand-alone code.
aspect ratio
The ratio of a pixel's width to height on a particular device. Information about a device's aspect ratio is used in the creation, selection, and display of fonts.
assertion
A Boolean statement in the debug version of a program that tests a condition that should, if the program is operating correctly, evaluate as true. If the condition is false, an error has occurred and the program will typically issue an error message that gives the user the option to abort the program, activate the debugger, or ignore the error.
assignment operator
An operator used to assign a value to a variable or a data structure. An example of an assignment operator is the simple assignment (=) operator, which assigns the value of its right operand to its left operand.
assignment statement
A statement that assigns a value to a variable or data structure. An assignment statement is usually composed of a destination variable, an assignment operator, and an expression to be assigned.
associativity
The order (either right to left or left to right) in which expressions are evaluated when adjacent operators have equal precedence and subexpressions are not enclosed in parentheses. For example, the expression 10 < 20 < 5 evaluates to 1 (true) because the less-than (<) relational operator has left-to-right associativity, causing the expression to be evaluated (10 < 20) < 5.
asynchronous call
A call to a function that is executed separately so that the caller can continue processing instructions without waiting for the function to return. Contrast with synchronous call.
asynchronous moniker
A protocol for Internet-enabled applications and ActiveX controls that retains responsiveness of the user interface during file downloads. See also bind context, composite moniker.
asynchronous operation
1. Or overlapped I/O. In programming for Windows, a task that proceeds in the background, allowing the thread that requested the task to continue to perform other tasks. See also synchronous operation.
2. More generally, an operation that proceeds independently of any timing mechanism such as a clock.
asynchronous processing
In ODBC, a method of processing transactions in which the database driver returns control to an application before a function call completes; the application can continue nondatabase processing while the driver completes the function in progress. See also synchronous processing.
ATL
A set of compact, template-based C++ classes that simplify the programming of Component Object Model objects. ATL provides the mechanism to use and create COM objects.
atomic operation
An operation that never has its execution suspended while partially completed. See also synchronous operation.
attribute
Any keyword of the Interface Definition Language that describes a property, method, or remote procedure call.
audio-video interleaved
A Microsoft technology for displaying full-motion video in a window. An AVI file interleaves waveform audio and video data and has a .AVI filename extension.
authentication
The process of determining the identity of a user attempting to access a system. Note that the user can be a person, a computer, or a process.
authentication token
A portable device used for authenticating a user. Authentication tokens operate by challenge/response, time-based code sequences, or other techniques.
automatic object
Objects that are local to each invocation of a block. See also automatic variable.
automatic storage class
Or auto storage class. In C++, the storage class for objects and variables that are local to the block of code where they are declared. The automatic storage class can be declared explicitly, by using the keywords auto or register, or implicitly, by default. See also local variable, static storage class.
automation client
In OLE Automation, an application that can manipulate exposed objects belonging to another application (called the OLE Automation server). The client drives the server application by accessing the objects' properties and functions. Microsoft Visual Basic is an example of an OLE Automation client application. See also automation server.
AVI
A Microsoft technology for displaying full-motion video in a window. An AVI file interleaves waveform audio and video data and has a .AVI filename extension.
Glossary B
backbone
A high-performance network connecting other networks.
background color
The color of the client area of an empty window or display screen, on which all drawing and color display take place. See also background mode, foreground color.
background mode
A mode that defines how background colors are mixed with existing window or screen colors for bitmap and text operations. The background mode can be either opaque (the default) or transparent.
backward compatibility
1. Ensuring that existing applications will continue to work in the new environment.
2. Ensuring that the new release of an application will be able to handle files created by a previous version of the product.
bandwidth
The amount of data that can travel through a circuit, usually indicated in bits per second (bps). A measure of capacity, not speed.
bandwidth on demand
In ISDN, the ability to aggregate B channels as the data traffic exceeds preset thresholds.
base address
In relation to memory locations, the portion of a two-part address that remains constant and provides a reference point, or base, from which the location of a byte of data can be calculated. A base address is accompanied by an offset value that is added to the base to determine the exact location (the absolute address) of the information.
base class
In C++, a class from which other classes are derived by inheritance. See also abstract class, derived class, virtual base class.
base line
In the printing and on-screen display of characters, an invisible, horizontal line within a character cell of a given font. Most characters sit on the base line, although some characters, such as g and j, descend below it.
base name
The portion of the filename that precedes the extension. For example, SAMPLE is the base name of the file SAMPLE.ASM. See also filename extension.
base priority
In multitasking, the priority level that provides the basis for calculating a thread's dynamic priority for CPU time. A thread inherits its base priority from the process in which the thread was created. The scheduler, which determines the order in which threads should execute, can temporarily boost the priority of a thread, but it cannot reduce the priority below this base priority.
BASED_CODE
A 16-bit MFC macro that ensures that data will be placed in the code segment instead of the data segment. Under Win32, this macro expands to nothing and is provided for backward compatibility.
basic input-output system
A set of routines that work closely with the hardware and the operating system to support the transfer of information between elements of the system, such as memory, disks, and the monitor.
basic rate interface
An ISDN service that consists of two 64-Kbps bearer channels (B channels) and one 16-Kbps signaling channel (D channel) referred to as 2B+D.
batch file
An unformatted text file that contains one or more commands, either internal operating-system commands or program names. A batch file is executable and can be run from the command line.
bearer channel
Or B channel. A fundamental component of ISDN interfaces. The channel carries 64,000 bits per second in either direction, is circuit switched, and may be able to carry either voice or data, depending on how the local telephone company provides its ISDN service.
big-endian
One of two byte-ordering conventions used on different machines. In big-endian addressing, the address points to the most significant byte of the word. Scalar Processor ARChitecture (SPARC) and Motorola 680x0 machines are big-endian machines. See also little-endian.
binary
1. The base-2 counting system, whose digits are 0 and 1.
2. An executable file — one that is in binary, or machine-readable, form. See also binary file.
3. A means of opening a file for input and output (binary mode versus text mode).
binary file
Or binaries. A file that consists of binary data or executable code. For example, a C++ executable file is a binary file. See also text file.
binary large object
1. Or binary data object. A large piece of data, such as a bitmap. A BLOB is characterized by large field values, an unpredictable table size, and data that is formless from the perspective of a program.
2. A keyword designating the BLOB structure, which contains information about a block of data.
binary operator
An operator that takes two operands. In C, binary operators are the multiplicative operators (*, /, %), additive operators (+, -), shift operators (<<, >>), relational operators (<, >, <=, >=, ==, !=), bitwise operators (&, |, ^), logical operators (&&, ||), the sequential-evaluation operator (,) the assignment operator (=), and the compound-assignment operators (+=, *=, etc.). See also ternary operator, unary operator.
bind context
A COM object that is used in moniker operations to hold references the objects activated when a moniker is bound. See also asynchronous moniker, binding, generic composite moniker, and moniker.
binding
1. The association of two pieces of information with one another, most often used in terms of a symbol (such as the name of a variable) with some descriptive information (such as a memory address, a data type, or an actual value).
2. In networking, a process that establishes the initial communication channel between the protocol driver and the network adapter card driver.
3. In OLE, the process of getting a compound-document object into a running state so that it can be activated. See also activation.
4. A Windows Sockets keyword that identifies the bind socket library routine. The bind routine associates a local address with a socket.
BIOS
A set of routines that work closely with the hardware and the operating system to support the transfer of information between elements of the system, such as memory, disks, and the monitor.
bit field
A structure member whose width is specified in bits, or binary digits, rather than being specified implicitly as characteristic of the data type. When viewed in binary form, each bit or group of bits in the bit field corresponds to a specific field of information.
bitmap
1. Or pixel image, pixel map. An array of bits that contains data describing the colors found in a rectangular region on the screen (or the rectangular region found on a page of printed paper).
2. Or bit image. A sequential collection of bits that represents, in memory, an image to be displayed on the screen or printed. See also bitmap file.
bitmap file
· A file that contains a collection of structures that specify or contain the following elements:
· A header that describes the resolution of the device on which the rectangle of pixels was created, the dimensions of the rectangle, the size of the array of bits, and so on.
· A logical palette.
· An array of bits that defines the relationship between pixels in the bitmapped image and entries in the logical palette.
Bitmap files usually have a .BMP filename extension. See also bitmap, device-independent bitmap file.
bitmap-stretching mode
A mode that defines how information is removed from or combined together in bitmaps that are stretched or compressed. For example, a particular bitmap-stretching mode may preserve black pixels at the expense of colored or white pixels.
bitwise operator
An operator that works on individual bits of its operands. The bitwise-NOT (~) operator produces the bitwise complement of its operand. For example, ~1010 = 0101. The binary operators — bitwise-AND (&), bitwise-OR (|), and bitwise-XOR (^) — compare each bit of the first operand to the corresponding bit of the second operand. For example, 1010 & 0110 = 0010. See also logical operator.
BLOB
1. Or binary data object. A large piece of data, such as a bitmap. A BLOB is characterized by large field values, an unpredictable table size, and data that is formless from the perspective of a program.
2. A keyword designating the BLOB structure, which contains information about a block of data.
BOND
In ISDN, the ability to aggregate B channels as the data traffic exceeds preset thresholds.
bookmark
A marker that uniquely identifies a specific record or row in a database, a specific line in source code, or an item or location in a word-processing file. The HTML equivalent of a bookmark is an anchor with the NAME attribute; this type of anchor is used as a destination for hyperlinks. When creating HTML documents in Word for Windows, for example, you use bookmarks to create anchors with the NAME attribute.
Boolean
A binary algebra that uses the logical operators AND, OR, XOR, and NOT, and whose outcomes consist of logical values (either TRUE or FALSE). The keyword boolean indicates that the expression or constant expression associated with the identifier takes the value TRUE or FALSE. See also conditional expression.
bounding rectangle
Or bounding box. A rectangular area that defines the outer limits of a rounded shape such as an ellipse, arc, or pie.
breakpoint
A location in a program where execution is stopped to allow the developer to examine the program's code, variables, and register values and, as necessary, to make changes, continue execution, or terminate execution.
BRI
An ISDN service that consists of two 64-Kbps bearer channels (B channels) and one 16-Kbps signaling channel (D channel) referred to as 2B+D.
bridge
1. A device that connects two segments or components of a network that use the same protocols. Used to overcome limitations on the physical length of a segment. See also brouter, router.
2. In ISDN, a hardware device used for forwarding data between two networks. A bridge reads each packet’s address information, which is written into the packet at the data-link layer of the OSI model. Unlike a router, a bridge is not interested in the address on the remote LAN, but only in whether or not the packet should be forwarded.
brouter
A device combining the functions of a bridge and a router by connecting two segments of a network and connecting two networks or a network to the Internet. See also bridge, router.
browse buttons
1. In Windows Help, a pair of buttons used to browse backwards and forwards through a sequence of Help topics. A browse sequence typically consists of two or more related topics that are intended to be read sequentially.
2. In dialog boxes, buttons used to view a list of network servers, directories, files, etc.
browse information file
A file created from source browser information (.SBR) files, using the Microsoft Browse Information File Maintenance Utility (BSCMAKE). Browse information files can be examined in browse windows and usually have a .BSC extension.
browser
A program used to view formatted Web documents.
brush
A graphics object used to paint the interior of shapes and paths. A brush describes an 8- by 8-pixel bitmap. See also logical brush, physical brush.
BSCMAKE
The Microsoft Browse Information File Maintenance utility. BSCMAKE uses source browser information (.SBR) files created by the compiler using the /FR or /Fr option, which are used to create browse information (.BSC) files.
buffer
1. (noun) An intermediate repository of data — a reserved portion of memory in which data is temporarily held pending an opportunity to complete its transfer to or from a storage device or another location in memory.
2. (verb) To store or collect in a buffer.
build
1. (noun) The process of compiling and linking source code to generate an executable program, library, Help file, or other run-time file. The files produced from the build process are also sometimes referred to as a "build."
2. (verb) To compile and link source code in order to generate an executable program, Help file, or other run-time file.
build tag
A string assigned to a topic that the Help project file can specify to include or not include in a build. Build tags can be made up of any alphanumeric characters and are not case-sensitive. They provide a means of supporting different versions of a Help system without the need to create different source files for each version. Topics without build tags are always included in a build, along with all tagged topics not expressly excluded from that particular build in the build expression.
built-in type
A data type that is intrinsic to the programming language. Contrast with user-defined types.
bulk record field exchange
When bulk row fetching is implemented, the mechanism by which MFC ODBC classes transfer data between the field data members of a recordset object and the corresponding columns of an external data source. See also record field exchange (RFX), DAO record field exchange (DFX), dialog data exchange (DDX).
bulk RFX
When bulk row fetching is implemented, the mechanism by which MFC ODBC classes transfer data between the field data members of a recordset object and the corresponding columns of an external data source. See also record field exchange (RFX), DAO record field exchange (DFX), dialog data exchange (DDX).
bulk row fetching
In ODBC, the process of retrieving multiple rows from the data source in a single fetch operation. The number of rows retrieved depends on the recordset object's setting for the rowset size.
button control
A graphical control that enables a user to provide input to an application. Windows provides five kinds of button controls: pushbuttons, check boxes, radio buttons, group boxes, and owner-draw buttons.
byte
A unit of information consisting of 8 bits. A byte, or "binary term," is the smallest collection of bits that can be accessed directly.
bytecode
Machine-independent code generated by the Java compiler and executed by the Java interpreter or compiled at the last minute by a JIT compiler.
Glossary C
C calling convention
The C standard for calling a function — that is, pushing arguments onto the stack from right to left (in reverse order from the way they appear in the argument list). After the function returns, the calling function removes the arguments from the stack. The C calling convention permits a variable number of arguments to be passed. See also calling convention.
C linkage specifier
A declaration of a function or object as extern "C", indicating to the C++ compiler that the function name that follows the linkage specifier is an undecorated C function. C linkage allows existing C code to be used in new C++ applications. See also linkage specification.
C source file
A text file containing C language code.
C++ exception handling
Built-in support provided by the C++ language for handling anomalous situations, known as "exceptions," that may occur during the execution of a program. With C++ exception handling, a program can communicate unexpected events to a higher execution context that is better able to recover from such abnormal events. These exceptions are handled by code that is outside the normal flow of control. See also structured exception handling (SEH).
C++ header file
Or .HXX file. An external source file, identified at the beginning of a C++ program, that contains commonly used data types and variables used by functions in a program. The #include directive is used to tell the compiler to insert the contents of a header file into the program.
C++ source file
Or .CXX file. A text file containing C++ source code.
cache
A special memory subsystem in which frequently used data values and instructions are duplicated for quick access.
call level interface
A library of function calls that support SQL statements and conform to the SQL Access Group Call Level Interface specification. These calls are typically used for dynamic access to data. ODBC is a call level interface.
call stack
An ordered list of functions that have been called but have not returned, with the currently executing function listed first. Each call is optionally shown with the arguments and types passed to it. During a debug session, you can view the functions that have been called but have not returned.
callback function
An application-defined function that a system or subsystem (Windows, for example) calls. Typically, this happens when an event occurs or when windows or fonts are being enumerated. Examples of callback functions include window procedures, dialog-box procedures, and hook procedures. Callback functions are also used to process dynamic data exchange (DDE) transactions.
calling convention
A convention that determines the order in which arguments passed to functions are pushed on the stack (the calling sequence), whether the calling or called function removes the arguments from the stack, and the name-decorating convention the compiler uses to identify individual functions. See also C calling convention, calling sequence.
calling sequence
Determines the order in which parameters are pushed onto the stack during a function call and which code block is responsible for the stack pointer. Typically, the C compiler generates code that pushes parameters on the stack from right to left, beginning with the last parameter. See also calling convention.
caret
1. Or insertion point. A flashing line, block, or bitmap that marks the location at which inserted text will appear in a window's client area.
2. (^) When preceding a single uppercase letter, indicates a control character. For example, ^C is the same as CTRL+C.
3. (^) A regular expression used to indicate either the beginning of a line or, when used within brackets, to indicate an exception.
carriage return character
A control character that tells a computer or printer to return to the beginning of the current line. This character can have a different textual representation on different platforms, but it always has the ASCII value of 13. See also carriage return–linefeed (CR-LF) pair.
carriage return–linefeed (CR-LF) pair
The combination of a carriage return character (ASCII 13) and a linefeed character (ASCII 10), represented in C/C++ by the newline (\n) character.
casting
Explicit or implicit conversion of one data type to another.
catch block
Or catch handler. In C++, a block of exception-handling code preceded by the keyword catch. The code in the catch block is executed only if the code in the try block throws an exception of the type specified in the catch statement. See also C++ exception handling, throw expression.
CGI
A mechanism that allows a Web server to run a program or script on the server and send the output to a Web browser. See also Internet Server Application Programming Interface (ISAPI).
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
In ISDN, a type of signaling authentication that uses a pair of secret codes consisting of up to 16 characters. CHAP is shared by communications devices on both ends.
CHAP
In ISDN, a type of signaling authentication that uses a pair of secret codes consisting of up to 16 characters. CHAP is shared by communications devices on both ends.
character constant
A member of the "source character set," the character set in which a program is written, surrounded by single quotation marks ( '[\.thsp]). Character constants are used to represent characters in the "execution character set" on the machine where the program executes.
character index
The number of characters from the beginning of an edit control.
character-mode application
An application that does not provide its own graphical user interface (GUI). The Win32 API provides consoles for managing input and output for character-mode applications. See also console application.
checksum
An error-detection scheme that involves creating a sum of the bits in a set of bytes of data and using that sum to later check for a change in the data. Checksums are commonly used in communications software to check for data transmission errors.
child control
A child window used in conjunction with another window (its parent) to carry out simple input and output (I/O) tasks.
child process
A process initiated by another process (the parent process). The child process can operate independently from the parent process. Further, the parent process can suspend or terminate without affecting the child process.
child window
A window that has the WS_CHILD or WS_CHILDWINDOW style and is confined to the client area of its parent window, which initiates and defines the child window. Typically, an application uses child windows to divide the client area of a parent window into functional areas. See also child control, sibling window.
chord
A closed figure bounded by the intersection of an ellipse and a line segment. In Windows, a chord is outlined by using the current pen and filled by using the current brush.
CISC
A processor that uses complex instructions at the assembly language level, allowing flexible ways of calculating such elements as memory addresses. A single instruction set may comprise several simpler instructions. Contrast with RISC.
CL environment variable
An environment variable used to specify files and options for the compiler/linker so you do not have to specify them on the command line.
CL.EXE
Or CL. A driver program that controls the Microsoft C and C++ compilers and linker. The compilers produce Common Object File Format (COFF) object files. The linker produces executable (.EXE) files, dynamic-link libraries (DLLs), or static-link libraries.
class
A type that defines the interface of a particular kind of object. A class definition defines instance variables and methods, class variables and methods, and specifies the immediate superclass (or superclasses) and the interfaces that the class implements.
class declaration
In C++, the mechanism for declaring an aggregate data structure of type class. A class declaration provides a list of its members (such as functions, data, and other classes), specifies any friends of the class, and defines the level of visibility for all members.
class factory
An object that creates one or more instances of an object identified by a given CLSID. A class factory object implements the IClassFactory interface. A class factory is one of the most frequently used types of class objects in OLE.
class identifier
A universally unique identifier (UUID) that identifies a type of OLE object. Each type of OLE object (item) has its CLSID in the registry so that it can be loaded and programmed by other applications. For example, a spreadsheet may create worksheet items, chart items, and macrosheet items. Each of these item types has its own CLSID that uniquely identifies it to the system. See also registration entry file.
class library
A set of related C++ classes that can be used in an application, either as originally defined or as the source for other derived classes. The Microsoft Foundation Class Library included in Visual C++ is an example of a class library that defines a framework for integrating the user interface of an application for Windows with the rest of the application.
class method
In Java, any method that can be invoked using the name of a particular class. Since the declaration uses the keyword static, these are called static member functions in C++. Class methods, which are defined in class definitions, affect the class as a whole, not a particular instance of the class. Compare with instance method.
class scope
In C++, the degree of visibility afforded to a name (function or variable, for example) when it is declared within a class declaration. The name is accessible from outside the class by using the scope-resolution (::) operator. See also file scope, function scope, function-prototype scope, local scope.
class variable
In Java, a data item associated with a particular class as a whole, not with particular instances of the class. Class variables are defined in class definitions. Equivalent to static member variables in C++, since the declaration uses the keyword static. In C++, a class variable must be explicitly defined, external to the class declaration. See also instance variable.
ClassWizard file
A file that ClassWizard generates, containing information needed to edit existing classes or add new classes to a project. ClassWizard also uses the ClassWizard file to store information needed to create and edit message maps and dialog data maps, and to create prototype member functions. ClassWizard files have a .CLW filename extension.
CLI
A library of function calls that support SQL statements and conform to the SQL Access Group Call Level Interface specification. These calls are typically used for dynamic access to data. ODBC is a call level interface.
client
An application or a process that requests a service from some other process, or from an in-process server. See also client/server.
client area
Or client rectangle. The portion of a window where the application displays output such as text or graphics.
client coordinates
An ordered pair (x,y) of numbers, relative to the origin (usually the upper-left corner of a window's client area), that designates a point in the client area. See also window rectangle.
client item
An object that provides an interface between an OLE item and the container application, and that is of a class derived from the MFC class COleClientItem. Client items are maintained by the container application and give the container application access to the presentation data and the native data. Client items also provide site(location) information to the server application for in-place activation. See also embedded item, linked item, server item.
client object
An object issuing a request for a service. A given object may be a client for some requests and a server for other requests. See also server object.
client/server
1. The most commonly used model for distributed applications. Client applications request services from a server application. A server can have many clients at the same time, and a client can request data from multiple servers. An application can be both a client and a server. See also client.
2. In network architecture, a model for a local area network where clients initiate communication with the server, which carries out the requests in the form of replies. For example, the clients may be workstations communicating with a file server on which all of their data is stored. See also client.
clip path
A graphics object that an application can select into a device context. A clip path is always created by an application and it is used for clipping to one or more irregular shapes. For example, an application can use the lines and curves that form the outlines of characters in a string of text to define a clip path. See also clipping region.
clipboard
An area of storage, or buffer, where data objects or their references are placed when a user carries out a cut or copy operation.
clipboard format
The data format of a memory object on the clipboard. Applications can use the standard clipboard formats provided by Windows or register their own custom formats. A clipboard format is identified by a unique, unsigned integer value, called the "format name."
clipboard owner
Or owner application. The application associated with the information on the clipboard. It is possible for there to be no clipboard owner. See also clipboard viewer.
clipboard viewer
A window that displays the contents of the clipboard. See also clipboard owner.
clipboard-viewer chain
A link between all of the running clipboard-viewer applications, enabling them to all receive the messages that Windows sends to the current clipboard viewer.
clipping
1. In Windows, the process of limiting output to a region or path within the client area in a window. For example, word processing and spreadsheet applications clip keyboard input to keep it from appearing in the margins of a page or spreadsheet.
2. In Open GL, eliminating the portion of a geometric primitive that is outside the half-space defined by a clipping plane.
clipping precision
A 16-bit value that defines how to clip characters that are partially outside the clipping region.
clipping region
In Windows, the portion of a window's client area where the system permits drawing.
CLSID
A universally unique identifier (UUID) that identifies a type of OLE object. Each type of OLE object (item) has its CLSID in the registry so that it can be loaded and programmed by other applications. For example, a spreadsheet may create worksheet items, chart items, and macrosheet items. Each of these item types has its own CLSID that uniquely identifies it to the system. See also registration entry file.
code page
A character set, which can include numbers, punctuation marks, and other glyphs. Different languages and locales may use different code pages. For example, code page 1252 is used for American English and most European languages. See also locale.
COFF
In 32-bit programming, a format for executable and object files that is portable across platforms. The Microsoft implementation of COFF is derived from the UNIX specification for COFF, but includes additional headers for compatibility with MS-DOS and 16-bit Windows. This Microsoft version is sometimes called the "portable executable (PE) file format."
collection class
In object-oriented programming, a class that can hold and process groups of class objects or groups of standard types. A collection class is characterized by its "shape" ( the way the objects are organized and stored) and by the types of its elements. MFC provides three basic collection shapes: lists, arrays, and maps (also known as dictionaries). See also collection object.
collection object
An object in a collection class.
color palette
An array containing the RGB values that identify the colors that can currently be displayed or drawn on the output device. Color palettes are used by devices that are capable of generating many colors but can only display or draw a subset of these at any given time. See also logical color palette.
COM
An open architecture for cross-platform development of client/server applications based on object-oriented technology as agreed upon by Digital Equipment Corporation and Microsoft Corporation. The Component Object Model defines an interface (similar to an abstract base class), IUnknown, from which all COM-compatible classes are derived.
combo-box control
In Windows, a child window that consists of a list box combined with either a static control or an edit control. The list-box portion of the control can either be displayed at all times or drop down when the user selects the drop-down arrow next to the control.
COMDAT record
A Common Object File Format (COFF) record that contains initialized common block data and makes packaged functions visible to the linker. See also packaged function.
command file
A text file that contains options and filenames you would otherwise type on the command line or specify using the CL or LINK environment variable. Since the command line is typically limited to 128 characters, a command file allows you to specify a large set of options or a very long file list to the compiler, linker, or resource compiler, for instance.
command handler
In MFC, a member function of an object which handles a request. Command handler member functions take no parameters and return void.
command identifier
Or command ID. In MFC, an identifier that associates a command message with the user-interface object (such as a menu item, toolbar button, or accelerator key) that generated the command. Typically, command IDs are named for the functionality of the user-interface object they are assigned to. For example, a Clear All item in the Edit menu might be assigned an ID such as ID_EDIT_CLEAR_ALL.
command line
A string of text typed at the command prompt, or executed from a command file, that specifies a task or tasks for the operating system or an application to perform.
command message
1. In Windows, a notification message from a user-interface object, such as a menu, toolbar button, or accelerator key. The framework processes command messages differently from other messages and such messages can be handled by a wider variety of object — documents, document templates, and the application object itself, in addition to windows and views.
2. In Media Control Interface (MCI), a symbolic constant that represents a unique command for an MCI device. Command messages have associated data structures that provide information a device requires to carry out a request.
comment delimiters
Characters used to denote text in a program that is not source code, thus telling the compiler to ignore it. C++ allows the traditional comment delimiters:
/* this is a comment */
as well as a single-line comment delimiter:
// everything else on this line is a comment
commit size
The amount of a resource that is allocated (or "committed") for a particular use. For example, in the header of a COFF file, the Windows NT–specific field Heap Commit Size specifies the size of the local heap that the linker and loader should allocate for that file. See also reserve size.
common data record
A Common Object File Format (COFF) record that contains initialized common block data and makes packaged functions visible to the linker. See also packaged function.
common dialog box
A dialog box predefined in Windows that supports standard operations, such as the Open command on the File menu. An application displays a common dialog box by calling a single function rather than by supplying a dialog box procedure and using a resource file containing a dialog box template.
Common Gateway Interface
A mechanism that allows a Web server to run a program or script on the server and send the output to a Web browser. See also Internet Server Application Programming Interface (ISAPI).
Common Object File Format
In 32-bit programming, a format for executable and object files that is portable across platforms. The Microsoft implementation of COFF is derived from the UNIX specification for COFF, but includes additional headers for compatibility with MS-DOS and 16-bit Windows. This Microsoft version is sometimes called the "portable executable (PE) file format."
compact executable file
An executable binary (program) file whose code is limited to a single 64-kilobyte segment. Compact executable files usually have a .COM filename extension and are often used for utility programs and short routines. See also executable file.
compilation
The translation of source code into object code.
compilation unit
The smallest unit of code that can be independently compiled, usually a source code file. See also translation unit.
compile time
The point at which a program is being compiled, or the amount of time required to perform a compilation of a program.
compile-time error
A syntactic or semantic error that prevents a program from being compiled.
compiled resource file
Or binary resource file. A binary file that contains a Windows-based application's resource data and is created by the resource compiler from the resource-definition (.RC) file. Compiled resource files usually have a .RES filename extension. See also Macintosh binary resource file, resource compiler.
compiler
A program that translates source code, such as C++ or Pascal, into directly executable machine code.
compiler/linker driver
Or CL. A driver program that controls the Microsoft C and C++ compilers and linker. The compilers produce Common Object File Format (COFF) object files. The linker produces executable (.EXE) files, dynamic-link libraries (DLLs), or static-link libraries.
complete object
An instance of a derived class from which no other classes are derived. A complete object is an object that is not a subobject representing a base class.
Complex Instruction Set Computer
A processor that uses complex instructions at the assembly language level, allowing flexible ways of calculating such elements as memory addresses. A single instruction set may comprise several simpler instructions. Contrast with RISC.
component object
An object that conforms to COM. Clients deal with a component object only through a pointer to an interface. See also interface, reference counting, marshaling, aggregation.
Component Object Model
An open architecture for cross-platform development of client/server applications based on object-oriented technology as agreed upon by Digital Equipment Corporation and Microsoft Corporation. The Component Object Model defines an interface (similar to an abstract base class), IUnknown, from which all COM-compatible classes are derived.
composite moniker
A moniker that consists of two or more monikers that are treated as a unit. A composite moniker can be nongeneric, meaning that its component monikers have special knowledge of each other, or generic, meaning that its component monikers know nothing about each other except that they are monikers. See also generic composite moniker.
compositing
The process of superimposing one image on another to create a single image.
compound document
Or container document. A document within a container application that contains data of different formats, such as sound clips, spreadsheets, text, and bitmaps. Each piece of integrated data (or "compound-document object") can exist within the compound document as a linked item or an embedded item.
compound file
The OLE implementation of the structured-storage model, which specifies how data is saved to and retrieved from storage. Conceptually, a compound file is a number of individual files (or stream objects) multiplexed into one physical file (or storage object) that still allows access to each individual file.
Compressed SLIP
SLIP with data compression for a more efficient connection. See also Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP).
conditional expression
Or Boolean expression, logical expression. An expression that yields a Boolean value (true or false). Such expressions can involve comparisons, using relational operators such as the less-than (<) and greater-than (>) operators, and logical combination of Boolean expressions, using Boolean operators such as bitwise AND (&) and logical OR (||).
connectable object
A COM object that supports event communication from the server to the client. The connectable object fires events by calling interfaces implemented on client objects. See also advise sink, connection point.
connection point
In OLE, a mechanism consisting of the object calling the interface, called the "source," and the object implementing the interface, called the "sink." The connection point implements an outgoing interface that is able to initiate actions, such as firing events and change notifications, on other objects. By exposing a connection point, a source allows sinks to establish connections to the source. See also connectable object.
connection string
Or connect string. In ODBC, a string expression used to open an external database.
console
An interface that provides input and output to character-mode applications. This processor-independent mechanism makes it easy to port existing character-mode applications or to create new character-mode tools and applications.
console application
1. A character-mode application that uses a console window for its input and output. If necessary, the operating system will create a new console window, which exists until the application terminates.
2. More generally, a program that runs from the operating system's command line, in character-mode, rather than from a graphical user interface.
constant
An object or variable that is not modifiable. In C++, the keyword const can be used to define constant values. See also manifest constant.
constant expression
An expression that is evaluated at compile time instead of run time. The constant expression can be used in any place that a constant can be used, but it must evaluate to a constant that is in the range of representable values for that type.
constructor
In C++, a special initialization function that is called automatically whenever an instance of a class is declared. This function prevents errors that result from the use of uninitialized objects. The constructor must have the same name as the class itself and must not return a value. See also copy constructor, default constructor, destructor.
container application
Or OLE container. An application that can incorporate embedded or linked items into its own documents. The documents managed by a container application are able to store and display OLE Visual Editing items as well as data created by the application itself. A container application allows users to insert new items or edit existing items. See also server application.
containment
A composition technique for accessing one or more COM objects via a single interface. It allows one object to reuse some or all of the interface implementations of one or more other objects. The outer object manages requests to other objects, delegating implementation when it uses the services of one of the contained objects. Contrast with aggregation.
context identifier (ID)
Or context reference. A unique number or string that corresponds to a particular object in the application — for example, to a menu command, form, control, or screen region. Context IDs are used to create links between the application and the corresponding Help topics.
context number
The number used to identify a Windows Help topic. If context numbers are not explicitly assigned to topics, the Help compiler generates default values by converting topic strings into context numbers. The [MAP] section of a Help project (.HPJ) file associates a context string and a context number. See also context string.
context string
A unique character string formatted as hidden text in a rich-text format (.RTF) file. Context strings link "hot spots" to target topics. The [MAP] section of a Help project (.HPJ) file associates a context string and a context number. See also context number.
control
An embeddable, reusable COM object that supports, at a minimum, the IOleControl interface. Controls are typically created for the user interface, but they also support communication with a control container. They can be reused by multiple clients, depending upon licensing restrictions.
control bar
A window that can contain buttons, edit boxes, check boxes, or other kinds of Windows controls. A control bar is usually aligned with the top or bottom of a frame window and provides quick, one-step command actions. Control bars include toolbars, status bars, and dialog bars.
control container
An application that supports the embedding of controls by implementing the IOleControlSite interface. See also control.
control identifier (ID)
A 16-bit value that an application uses to uniquely identify a child control. This ID is used in notification messages to the parent window when events, such as input from the user, occur in the control.
control property
A run-time property that is exposed and managed by the control itself. For example, the font and text size used by the control are control properties. See also run-time property.
controlling object
The object that manages access to the contained aggregate objects. See also containment.
conversion function
1. In C++, a special member function that makes an explicit conversion from a given class type to another data type by using the operator type-name( ) syntax. Conversion functions are often called "cast operators" because they are the functions called when a cast operator is used.
2. More generally, any function that converts one data type or format to another data type or format.
cookie
A unique identifier that is opaque (not aliased to anything else). The cookie may be an index, a hash value, or a pointer to some object in memory, but only the subsystem knows this. To the subsystem user, the cookie is just the name of a resource.
coordinate space
A planar space based on the Cartesian coordinate system.
coordinated universal time
A global time standard equivalent to Greenwich mean time (GMT).
copy constructor
In C++, a constructor with one parameter, whose type is a reference to another instance of the class. If a class is declared without a copy constructor, the compiler will generate one automatically. The copy constructor is used when an instance is created from another instance (for example, an assignment from one instance of the class to another).
CRC
An error-detecting method that uses a polynomial code. The method is sometimes referred to as the polynomial code.
critical section
A segment of code which is not reentrant; that is, it does not support concurrent access by multiple threads. Often, a critical section is used to protect shared resources
cross compilation
A compilation of source code that takes place on one hardware platform but generates object code for another. For example, object code for the Power Macintosh can be compiled on an Intel-based Windows platform. See also compilation, object code.
CSLIP
SLIP with data compression for a more efficient connection. See also Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP).
cursor resource file
A file that contains an image that defines the shape of a cursor on the screen. Cursor resource files usually have a .CUR filename extension.
custom control
A special-format dynamic-link library (DLL) or object file that adds features and functionality to a Windows-based application user interface. A custom control can be a variation on an existing Windows dialog-box control (for example, a text box suitable for use with a pen and digitizing tablet) or an entirely new category of control. See also ActiveX control.
custom interface
An interface that uses no built-in mechanisms for marshaling, providing user-defined (custom) marshaling instead.
custom resource
Or application-defined resource. A resource that a developer creates and adds to an application's executable file that contains data required by the application. See also standard resource.
cyclic redundancy check
An error-detecting method that uses a polynomial code. The method is sometimes referred to as the polynomial code.






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Description of Product
Detailed description of a product. This description could include: Basic information about the line of products and any information that you might use to describe your product. $ 19.95
Description of Product
Detailed description of a product. This description could include: Basic information about the line of products and any information that you might use to describe your product. $ 19.95
Description of Product
Detailed description of a product. This description could include: Basic information about the line of products and any information that you might use to describe your product. $ 19.95